"Many years of experience in the design and installation of terraces, both made of exotic wood, composite boards and stone or ceramic tiles gives us the opportunity to propose the correctly selected substrate for a given type of terrace.
Depending on the customer's conditions, an appropriate supporting structure is made for terrace boards, stone or ceramics tiles and the subsequent construction of the terrace, including the raised / ventilated terrace."
Type of terrace - wooden terraces, composite terraces.
Terraces can be divided into many types.
Both due to the type of cladding and the type of substrate on which they are built.
And so it can be, for example, wooden terraces and terraces made of composite boards.
However, due to the foundation, it is as follows: terraces on the ground, terraces made on a concrete slab, floating / ventilated terraces leveled with the use of adjustable pedestals without the need to anchor to the ground.
It is a technology for securing terrace substrates thanks to seamless insulation, e.g. insulating slurries, bituminous insulations, polyurethane insulation, pool paints.
Safety seamlessness guarantees an even surface thanks to which the next terrace layers can be laid and leveled e.g. on adjustable bedestals for additional stability and lack of inequality.
Balconies are an architectural element constituting an integrating part of the building. There are three main types of balconies due to the construction.
The most common are balconies:
2. slightly less often placed on an independent supporting structure, separated from the building
3. and suspended.
Terrace waterproofing / Hydroisolation
Due to the ubiquity of moisture in the construction of the terrace, balcony, loggias, proper waterproofing is very important. The design of balconies and terraces must be designed and constructed in such a way as to ensure their safe use.
One of the main conditions for the durability of these elements is to prevent the ingress of moisture and water into the structure.
Waterproofing, which is a barrier against the penetration of water and moisture into the structure of the balcony or terrace is also a protection against corrosion of the structural board, leaks and the development of microorganisms.
The investor should choose waterproofing materials according to such criteria as the type of structural element (balcony or terrace) and the scope of work of the ground - the larger the surface, the more applied materials should have greater flexibility.
Correct insulation of the balcony and terrace, which protects against water penetration into the structure, is of particular importance when the terrace is located directly above the room, for example the living room. Water entering the structure results in moisture in the ceiling and creating conditions inside the building for the development of biological corrosion, e.g. fungi and mold.
The terraces are constantly exposed to atmospheric factors - rain, snow, strong sunlight and variable temperature. Especially the temperature in our climate is not very friendly for construction - every year it exceeds the 0 ° C limit at least several dozen times, causing alternately freezing and thawing of materials, and thus their swelling and shrinkage. In this way, all not exactly sealed places where water leaks break, leading to gradual destruction of the structure.
As subsequent layers cover those previously laid, any defects are difficult to fix. It's easy to hide or overlook them. They will only make themselves felt when there is a leak inside the house.
Terrace thermal isolation
Another very important fragment of the substrate preparation for the terrace, especially in places where the terrace, balcony, loggia is planned over the existing room. Thermal isolation allows savings in terms of heat loss.
Decline and slope of the terrace, drains
It does not matter whether it is a terrace on the ground or above the room. Everyone must have a suitable slope to drain the rainwater from the terrace floor. What should the terrace fall down like?
The terrace surface should be shaped with a slope outside, i.e. it must fall away from the building wall. A terrace fall of 1-2% (1-2 cm per meter in length) is considered sufficient.
Such a decrease in the terrace surface is practically imperceptible to the eye, and very important for the life of the terrace.
It prevents the penetration of rainwater or coming from melting snow into the building interior, moisture of the building walls, and also facilitates the free drainage of water.
It is unacceptable for the terrace to fall toward the building - then its wall is exposed to moisture, and puddles may form when entering the terrace.
Incorrectly made terrace fall
It results in: dampness of the base, peeling and destruction of the terrace cladding, leakage through the terrace slab, flooding of the room located under the terrace.
Leveling on adjustable pedestals allows you to level the terraces, balconies, loggias in accordance with all recommendations and protections for insulation including EPDM and jointless and obtain the correct slopes for water outflow, which is a condition for the proper functioning of the terrace surface.
Substrate for setting up terrace adjustable pedestals.
Ventilated terrace is a technology that can be used both on the ground, but also on old and new concrete screeds. Making such a terrace is economical and easy to assemble.
Do ventilated terraces have only advantages?
It seems that is right. Their construction is simple and cheap, so you can do it yourself. Plus, it's easy to replace damaged components and the flexibility of the surface on which the terrace will stand.
The construction of the ventilated terrace consists of plates mounted on special support terrace system placed on a stable surface. In the space between the terrace surface and the ground there will be space for necessary installations, which you can run even after the terrace is made.
All media will be under the terrace without a collision and you always have the opportunity to trouble-free outcrop. Raising the terrace above the ground makes it possible to drain rainwater, and the surface is hardy. Terrace tiles are laid on the adjustable pedestals.
Their installation is quick and simple, and if it needs to be replaced during use, there is no problem. The tiles, similarly to the adjustable pedestals, were removed, provided they had no mechanical damage or destruction, and are suitable for re-use, e.g. elsewhere.
The construction of a ventilated terrace can be divided into two stages. The first is to prepare the substrate, the second is to lay tiles, boards or ceramics on terrace supports pads or adjustable pedestals.
It should be remembered that during the preparation of the substrate to ensure adequate water drainage - that is, shape the slopes to the outside. The substrate should also be protected against unfavorable weather conditions, for example with heat-welded roofing felt - the corners should be carefully sealed.
We begin setting up the adjustable pedestals on the prepared base. These adjustable pedestals are made of appropriate plastics. They carry loads / ranges specified by the manufacturer, both at positive and negative temperatures / the temperature range is given by the manufacturer /. In addition, the adjustable pedestals do not bend or bend and are resistant to damage. The height of the support will determine the height of your ventilated terrace. However, they are selected mainly depending on the substrate. There are three types of terrace plastic pedestals heights available on the market:
1. Support pads for terrace tiles with a fixed height (not adjustable)
2. Adjustable pedestals with standard heights and strength parameters, suitable for most utility terraces
3. Adjustable pedestals with high heights and increased strength parameters, intended for specialized buildings, e.g. industrial or collective utility buildings
How to prepare the ground for terrace roof pedestal system
The ground (foundation) for each planned terrace should be stable. In addition, it is preferable for the ground to be even, because the terrace can be laid / mounted directly on such ground. If the ground / foundation is uneven / and a leveling element should be used (e.g. DD PEDESTALS adjustablepedestals). The durability of the terrace structure depends on the properly prepared substrate.
Sand and cement base
Each construction should be adapted to the function it will fulfill. Terraces should be adapted to the needs of the owner. Those skilled in the art will certainly advise you on the design of the ballast for a specific construction and these design recommendations, including material choices, should not be ignored. What counts is quality and professionalism.
Groundwork - sand, cement or gravel?
The choice should be well thought out and suited to the project. In loose condition, the selected ballast should be leveled and its thickness adjusted to the needs of the surface. Your choice will allow you to finish the construction and enjoy the effects. After all, you want the effect to be lasting!
"The screed on the terrace should not be made without good preparation. It is easy to overdo with the amount of concrete poured, which can result in an uneven terrace.
Surely we must always take into account the thickness of the material that we plan to lay on the screed. Especially when the terrace exit is connected with the entrance to the building, and the balcony door opens outwards, it is quite important.
Before making a screed on the terrace, you need to prepare a primer with proper isolation. In the past, this concept was not known in construction and many buildings began to destroy because of the lack of proper isolation at the base, and the terrace can also directly adhere to the ground. A screed may also be needed when we want to create columns for terrace construction."
Heat-sealable roofing hydroisolation is a well-known insulation material used for roofing, foundation insulation, waterproofing terraces or balconies. Heat-welded roofing felt is becoming more and more popular, replacing roofing felt with traditional adhesive.
Heat-sealable roofing hydroisolation - characteristics
Heat-weldable roofing felt consists of several layers: topping, bitumen top layer, support matrix, bottom / bottom bitumen layer, release film. Heat-weldable roofing felt is glued by melting the bitumen on the bottom layer with a burner.
They have a factory-prepared plant that allows for quick tight connections of individual roofing felt strips, so well-laid waterproofing from roofing felt is durable.
It should also be remembered that the adhesive melts at 70 ° C, so the roof covering must be resealed every few years. Heat-sealable roofing felt has much better properties and does not require renovation for a long time.
Also called liquid foil. Is liquid film really a film? In fact, it is rather a specialist product based on synthetic resins, which, after drying, has sealing properties - anti-moisture and anti-moisture, just like real foil.
However, while it is difficult to imagine ordinary film as a material that would isolate elements from moisture for a long period - the liquid film is created just for such applications.
EPDM rubber isolation
EPDM is a synthetic rubber (rubber) belonging to the group of elastomers. EPDM is an abbreviation of the English name of the main membrane component, i.e. ethylene propylene diene monomer.
Other components of EPDM rubber are: technical carbon black, silt, technical oil, sulfur, stabilizers.
This rubber is formed in the vulcanization process. The main advantages of EPDM: high flexibility in very low temperatures, high elasticity and extensibility, pressure resistance, dimensional stability, high durability, easy installation, chemical resistance and environmental friendliness.
Hardness of XPS isolation boards when using adjustable pedestals
- for styrodur XPS - 200, the allowable compressive stress at deformation up to 10% is 200 kPa. Converting Kilopascals to kg / cm ^ 2 we have 200 kPa = 2 kg / cm ^ 2. So it turns out that we can put a load of up to 357 kg on one bracket.
- for styrodur XPS - 300, the allowable compressive stress with a deformation of up to 10% is 300 kPa. Converting kilopascals to kg / cm ^ 2 we have 200 kPa = 3 kg / cm ^ 2. So it turns out that we can put a load of up to 535.5 kg on one bracket. The above applies to the Standard series.
How to finish the edge of the terrace?
Drip cap, gutters, balustrade, the correct execution of all layers of the terrace does not guarantee that there will be no damage over time. If the edges are not carefully finished and the space along the walls of the house ineffectively sealed - the terrace can leak and destroy.
Drip cap - The edge of the terrace must always be ended with a drip cap in the form of a sheet apron, which projects 3-5 cm beyond the edge of the terrace tile. It protects not only against the formation of stains on the wall or pedestal, but above all protects against water penetration under the surface. The drip caps are attached directly to the tile adhesive layer, the part extending under the tiles should be perforated to allow good adhesion. An appropriately shaped coated aluminum sheet or system profiles adapted to draining the terrace are used as the drip cap.
Gutter installation - on large, uncovered roofed terraces, gutters are mounted along the lowest edge. This will prevent streaks that could be caused by rainwater on the façade, which always flushes dirt from the terrace surface. The gutters are mounted at the lowest edge of the surface slope, but on larger terraces it is also worth mounting the gutters on its sides. The edges of the terrace should be finished with metal aprons directing rainwater to the inside of the gutter.
Terrace railing installation - Railing seating
How to properly place the railing on the balcony tiles?
How to do it so that the terrace does not leak?
Which railing to choose?
How to match it to our small balcony or large roof terrace?
A common cause of terrace leakage is improper seating of the balustrade posts. Due to their strength, they should be embedded in the terrace tiles, which breaks the continuity of the waterproofing. It is therefore necessary to apply a sealing layer of silicone (in the form of a conical ring surrounding the post) where the posts are mounted.
Another good solution is to attach the posts not to the top of the terrace tiles, but to the bottom or to the leading edge. Without disturbing the waterproofing. The balustrade embedding system was introduced, among others, by the DECK-DRY
company, balustrades anchored to the grate made of joists, so as not to enter the waterproofing. So that the railing is rigid and solidly fixed without invading the terrace substrate.
Balustrades on balconies are often already adapted to the installation of tiles in the ventilated terrace system. They have a steel angle on which the pavers can be supported.
That solutions are most often used on development assumptions, where already at the design stage, the architect planned a raised floor system and angles are already included in the bill of materials.
These solutions definitely facilitate the assembly of the panels. They constitute an ideal edge limitation for a slab floor.
Often, these strips are mounted to the balustrade posts (whether from the outside or inside, depending on the system) and it can be done at any time of work. Also at the time of installation of the ceramic cladding on balconies.
Connection of terrace layers with the building wall
Correct execution of this connection is important for the tightness and durability of the terrace. The basic condition is that 10-15 cm damp isolation is erected on the wall of the house.
If waterproofing is being laid during renovation, in the form of roofing felt on an inheritance layer, it should also be erected on the wall, with an oblique filling in the corner that allows for gentle bending of isolation.
However, in the case of tile isolation, an isolaiting tape insert is glued in the corner, and a layer of liquid film is applied to the wall. Due to protection against dirt as well as additional protection against water ingress, the wall strip near the terrace floor should be covered with ceramic tiles.
They must not come into direct contact with the terrace surface - at the contact with the wall we leave an expansion gap (filled with an expansion cord, covered with a layer of silicone). The top edge of the plinth tiles is also secured with silicone or acrylic mass.
Attic around the terrace
The attic is a structural part that closes the space of a balcony or terrace from the outside. Usually it has the form of a characteristic wall. In modern construction, attics are most often found on flat roofs, however, they are increasingly used on terraces and balconies. Attics can have different heights.
The most important, however, is the function they perform. First of all: the attic closes the thermal insulation of the balcony or terrace. It is also a type of water restriction. Low attic walls are ideal for mounting railings. High can be an alternative to railings, while being an effective architectural element.
Thanks to the attic on the terrace or balcony, the continuity of insulation layers is ensured - all thanks to the fact that it is not necessary to install balustrades and eaves profiles.
The window frame at the terrace
Regardless of the location, the terrace should ensure the right selection of windows, doors and blinds for this place. When installing large-format glazing, it is worth using those that operate on the basis of lift-slide fittings, which, together with the low threshold and the possibility of controlling the door with the help of a remote control, are a truly modern combination of technique and comfort in everyday life. Technology that guarantees warmth. Worth to check is also distance between lower edge of balcony window and terrace ground. The distance lower than 5 cm is a low height terrace. Then we recommend to use our low height pedestal for terraces.
When choosing window frames for the terrace, we can not forget about the thermal properties. Regardless of whether we choose wooden, aluminum or PVC windows, they must have appropriate technical parameters to avoid large heat losses.
For large glazing, anti-burglary protection is also important. When planning the installation of window and door frames at the terrace, you should definitely think about:
- location, type of building and method of use of the roof (public and residential building, etc.),
- sealing concept (composite seal, drainage system) and type of wear layer,
- technical and functional requirements (e.g. wheelchairs),
- level of floor inside and terrace usable layer,
- door structure and type (opened, sliding),
- type of sealing material (roll, seamless),
- presence of additional elements (e.g. external roller shutter guides).
it is extremely important that the adopted design solution allows waterproofing. Any unnecessary edge, bending, etc. is a potential place that hinders tight connections.
particular attention should be paid to the location, as well as the method and time of installation of external roller blinds. Too early installation of guides may even prevent sealing.
Wall and facade as a terrace edge
Home terraces can be done in many ways. One of the most popular is to make a concrete terrace tiles on a layer of compacted sand, leaning against the edges of concrete blocks, built on a foundation block. It does not matter if the terrace is adjacent to only one wall or to two - in the corner of the house.
Just like stairs, the terrace should also be separated from the house structure - preferably it will only touch the isolation of foundation walls made of extruded polystyrene or hard foamed polystyrene.
Also the benches on which the walls surrounding the terrace will be built of concrete blocks should be recessed in the ground (especially the ground floor) to a depth equal to the freezing zone of the soil. Since the concrete slab of the terrace is peripherally supported on these walls, it would not be good if it was broken due to frost linings lifting its edges.
Terrace masking covers can be described as a curtain for the side and end parts of the terrace. These are usually elements attached to the side edges of the front part or to its bottom in order to mask the so-called terrace substructure. For example, leveling performed on adjustable pedestals.
The terrace covers can be made of many different materials depending on what the terrace is covered with: wooden planks cut to the appropriate width, ready-made composite masking strips, terrace tiles, curbs or even stone.
Masking the edge of the terrace can also be a suitable type of plants planted on the perimeter of the terrace, which will also serve as a cover for the substructure.
Ventilated terrace eaves profiles
The correct finish of the hood is a condition of a durable terrace or balcony. The eaves profile should have anti-corrosive coatings appropriate for the application and a structure that ensures the tightness of the eaves.
Ventilated floors are currently the most dynamically developing technology used in the construction of terraces and balconies.
This technology owes its development to simple workmanship, lack of rigid and glued joints, and high durability.
For the proper functioning of a ventilated floor, eaves profiles are necessary, which act as a support for floor panels and ensure proper drainage of the floor.
Terrace borders are the latest generation of multifunctional edges, forming a stable, aesthetic crowning arrangement of terrace surfaces.
The solution based on a simple, innovative mechanism and durable material, allows for quick and effective finishing of also irregular terrace systems.
Used on gravel, grass and concrete surfaces, they are perfectly suited various types of terrace cubes.
In addition, after cutting out the lateral bridges, they can be installed even in compositions based on the shape of the arch. Edges also work as expansion joints.
The foundation for terraces on joists
It should be designed and constructed according to the planned terrace surface. Suitable for wooden, composite boards, ceramics tiles or every other terrace tiles. Also depends on the type of floor or building conditions.
So always chosen properly for the planned terrace or balcony, depending on its purpose and loads.
The foundation can be different.
Starting with the old floors, such as old paving stones or old ceramic tiles glued to the substrate (remember not to leak - if so, repair any damage and leakage points and then install the new cladding).
Other solutions are openwork slabs, concrete rims and blocks or even old concrete tiles placed directly under the support to distribute its point pressure on the ground.
The most stable and the most common are concrete screeds, whether covered with tar paper or without it, because if there are no rooms under the terrace slab, there is no need to protect the screed with heat-weldable tar paper or other waterproofing. On inverted roofs, gravel is usually scattered on large development assumptions on the roof, which should be spread apart before the brackets are set apart for stability. here are some photos from our projects.
Aluminum joists are most often used for structures that need greater stiffness, also often used for investments in the case of the need for NRO for the entire facility. Aluminum joists are often required for higher loads on terraces, depending on the load-bearing capacity of the material used, and also where it is necessary to change the structure.
Wooden joists are mainly used in the construction of terraces made of wooden boards. The type of wood of the joists is selected with parameters similar or the same as the material used on the terrace. The most important principle is: the structural joist cannot be of a lower class than the facing boards, as it will not maintain the stiffness of the entire terrace. It is very important. Failure to comply with this requirement will result in board deformation, linearity changes, keying, etc.
Composite joists, whether PVC or HDPE, are selected according to the material used or the terrace montage system. They are used, for example, in the concealed mounting system DECK-DRY (because this is how the system predisposes). It is also advantageous to use composite joists in the construction of ventilated terraces on DD Pedestals adjustable pedestals. The uniformity of the materials facilitates the selection of other elements, e.g. screws.
Joist frame construction
Such a substructure frame structure made of joists is a very important element of decked terraces. Both composite and wooden.
The necessity to make the frame is generated by the technical parameters of the boards used, as well as the estimated and designed external load generated on the finished terrace. If it is planned to place heavy elements on the deck, the joist frame structure should be properly compacted.
The frame stiffens the structure and prevents material distortions.
The design of the stairs on the adjustable pedestals
Made to maintain privacy as a decorative element, as a separation of the terrace / balcony size for individual residential premises.
Balcony partitions are usually attached to the ceiling tiles both from the bottom and from the top, so that they are, firstly, made stable and secondly that their assembly elements are hidden under the floor finish. It happens, however, that they are attached to the wall, which is also a very good solution.